Ideology changes the view of human life.
As per the Collins Dictionary, an ideology is a set of belief, especially the political beliefs on which people, parties, or countries base their actions. The Cambridge Dictionary says an ideology is a set of beliefs or principles, especially one on which a political system, party or organization is based.
Ideology changes the view of human life. The goal of a leader based on logical rational (ideology) determines the relationship in a society. As the folk by nature are a conceptual being, so they need philosophy- an integrated, systematic view of existence- in some way to serve as the conceptual guide to live in a society. Many philosophers have said that “politics applies ethics to social issues, and thereby the ethics-science of code of values-forms the basis for human beings to live by. The ethics depends on epistemology-nature and of means of human knowledge, of grasping reality and the epistemology again depends on metaphysic-nature of reality”. For better understanding of philosophy, the views of the philosophers are expressed here, as under;
One’s view of what is the proper system of society for human beings to live together depend on how one’s views human nature, and how one grasps the world one lives in, that depends on one’s philosophy. If one’s philosophy is that one lives in a world of miracles, where truth is by revelation, and morality means sacrificing oneself, one’s politics is very different from someone who believes in a world of cause and effect that one can understand rationally, to achieve personal happiness. If one’s philosophy is that of a religious fundamentalist then abortion is is murder, and a fetus has the right to live in a woman’s body irrespective of the woman’s thoughts on the subject. Life comes from God, and God giveth let no man (or women) take away. If one is an advocate of state’s rights (democracy), then the individual has no rights but live by permission of the states and the government can revoke (alienate) this permission at whim. The right to abortion becomes a matter of majority vote, i.e. might makes right. If one is advocate of an Objectivist, abortion is an alienable rights, since women is an actual being- whose body belongs to her- and the fetus is a potential being- a part of the woman’s body – to be disposed of according to the woman’s interests”
Democratic socialism tends to be peaceful revolutionary or evolutionary in seeking its aims
Formation of new independent states after separating from USSR during mid 20th century put in place the question of formulating the type of government for future growth of the country. Then, there emerged of a modified concept called ‘democratic socialism’ envisaging democratic political system within the socialistic system. Democratic socialism adopted ‘the principles of democracy within the economy and promises for a benevolent form of capitalism and socialism wherein the benefits so reaped from effective management is directed for pro-poor public services and activities with an element of social collectivism rather than complete fiscal redistribution irrespective of the impact it has on economy’. Recently, the proponents of democratic socialism have defined socialism ‘as a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy’. Democratic socialism advocates the principles of socialism but power to govern only through the fair election. It believes that free and fair elections determine change in government and society.
Democratic socialism is used more often than not synonymously with ’socialism’, but the democratic socialists added the adjective ’democratic’ to distinguish them from Marxism-Leninism based socialists, who are not democrat in practice. The Communists believe that they have the true democratic ideology, but never use the term democratic socialism for that ideology. They use social democracy to mean something less than true socialism. Broadly, socialism means equality in the society, while democratic socialism means equality in a democratic state. It is eclectic in nature and derives its ideas from many sources from Marxism to Revisionism (revised Marxism) to Falsian socialism to religious socialism. Democratic socialism tends to be peaceful revolutionary or evolutionary in seeking its aims. It aims at addressing the reforms in social inequalities by replacing private ownership with social ownership of the means of production. The critical views by Albert Einstein(1949), one of the greatest thinkers and scientists of the modern world, on socialism may shed important insights into better understanding of socialist economy, some excerpts are reproduced here;
…unlimited competition leads to a huge waste of labor, and that crippling of the social consciousness of individuals…our whole educational system suffers from the evils of capitalism. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student, who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career:
…there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented towards social goals. In such economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. A planned economy, which adjusts production to the needs of the community, would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, women, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to remember that a planned economy is not yet socialism. A planned economy as such may be accompanied by the complete enslavement of the individual. The achievement of socialism requires the solution of some extremely different socio-political problems: how is it possible, in view of the far-reaching centralization of political and economic power, to prevent bureaucracy from becoming all-powerful and overweening? How can the rights of the individual are protected and therewith a democratic counterweight to the power of bureaucracy be assured? Clarity about aims and problems of socialism is of greatest significance in our age of transition.
In the modern times, social democracies have become the most prosperous nations managing their ability to exploit less prosperous nations. In this sense, some thinkers hold their opinions that social democracy is the most sophisticated version of imperialism. Democratic socialists reject the centralized nature of the socialist and communist state because once they come into power, elections tend to be farcical- a fraudulent exercise which makes people cynical and disenchanted with the system. Democratic socialists also oppose the idea of Stalinist political system and the model of Russian economy where the form of government is authoritarian with a highly centralized command economy.
As per Barly (2000), the most popular approach of conceiving the democratic socialism is in term of four kinds of democracy; political democracy, social democracy, economic democracy and international democracy that was taken in the founding statement of the socialist International founded in 1889 in Paris. Of the four, three kinds of democracy are relevant in the political context of the state of Sikkim as the last fourth kind of democracy falls under the domain of Government of India.
Political democracy is the first goal in achieving democratic socialism.
Democratic socialists have adopted many ideas from the liberal democratic philosophies, which reject all dictatorial and authoritarian ideologies. In democratic socialism, basic civil rights, such as, freedom to participate in government and society without discrimination, free elections, free political parties and freedom to work and to use public amenities without racial or other forms of discrimination must be established. Democratic socialists advocate for a strong foundation of civil liberties, freedom from government, freedom of speech, press, peaceable assembly, freedom to practice religion, right to a fair trial, etc. in democratic socialist government.
Social democracy comes after the establishment of democratic government and civil liberties.
In this stage, an extensive and comprehensive social welfare system is established, which includes a government system for old-age pensions, unemployment compensation, health plans like government subsidized health care insurance covering nearly all citizens. Under the democratic socialist government, other programs like an aid to unemployed and uneducated are also provided. Manufacturing industries are owned both by public and private parties in social democratic socialists are evolutionary in nature, who seeks a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism. The main issue with democratic socialism is being opportunist. In order to win election, democratic socialists postpone many social welfare schemes. Many bureaucrats in democratic socialist governments are often found with timid approach to bring change, governments do not do much to address and correct the pressing social problems, such as, increasing suicides, crimes, addition to drugs, unemployment, etc. On the other hand, those democratic socialists go for revolutionary change is viewed as challenging that involves a lot of risks. Revolutionary democratic socialists are normally a minority in democratic socialist is normally a minority in democratic socialist parties and they need not necessarily be advocates of violent revolution to overthrow the governments. Instead, they can be peaceful revolutionist and seek faster and more business and industries.
Economic democracy is a socially owned and democratically controlled economy that advocates the end to inequality, exploitation and alienation of the working class under capitalism.
To end all social evils, which are considered as one of the major sources of injustices, is the main aim of democratic socialism. For social democrats, economic democracy means a goal which can be achieved in a gradual manner, whereas it is an immediate goal to achieve to the revolutionary democratic socialists. Socialists view the social ownership to have many forms, such as, nationalization, public, undertaking, municipalization, local government ( panchayati raj in India), community ownership, co-operatives, etc. again, co-operative have to basic forms: (I) the producer` co-operative ( involves worker ownership) and (ii) the consumer` co-operative( ownership by consumers). Other forms of consumer` co-operative also exist, such as, housing co-operatives, farming co-operatives, construction co-operatives, food co-operatives, marketing co-operatives, etc. Hybrid form of co-operatives and social ownership involving government, co-operative, private capitalist and labor union ownership are the emerging concept in democratic socialism. In economic democratic system, citizens elect legislatures who, in turn appoint managers thereby they exercise the function. On other hand, in the co-operative movement and other socialist movement conceive economic democracy as worker or consumer election of management. Therefore, democratic socialism draws attention to a more democratic character and it is committed for the decentralization of economic planning where the different units of production are combined into a single organization and organized based on the public management.
Democratic socialism teachers us to understand that the world can be different; people are different from the view of capitalist culture. The proponents of democratic socialism view that selfishness is not the foundation of people`s lives; rather, it accommodates dissent and opposing point of view. In fact, democratic socialism is the essential elements meaningful social change, to influence the relationships and dependencies of human well being. We can strongly argue the democratic society can only be based on a view of ordinary people as fit to rule society. It is observed the human well-being depends on recognizing others and being recognized by them, and democratic socialism dwelling on social collectivism can be better option of safeguarding the human inter-dependency in a society. A truly democratic society can be established in the values and relationship of ordinary working people.
Democratic socialism is primary of anti-despotic and anti-authoritarian form of static socialism. It advocates the social system (state control) of the means of production within the framework of a democratic statist system wherein the workers elect the planning committee. In other forms of socialism such as, Marxism-leninism advocates for total state control economy where in the workers comply with the decision of the central planning committee; and the Anarchism and stateless socialism advocate for direct worker`s control of economy where in the workers are planning committee. Democratic socialism believes in mixed economy in which both public and private parties co-exist side by side. The Republic of India has advocated the political philosophy of mixed economy. In the Directive principles of state policy under the constitution of India, planning takes place for establishment of a socialist pattern of society where in the means of production(economy) are under social ownership or control, production is progressively moved up and equal distribution of wealth among the citizen is managed through various democratic institutions. However, the emergence of the new economy policy of 1991 of liberalization, privatization and globalization has weakened the credentials of democratic socialism in India.
In view of the pros and cons observed throughout the history of revolution, Sikkim krantikari Morcha party must have a greater political courage and wisdom in upholding the philosophy of democratic socialism. Sikkim is a federal state of the democratic socialist India; we face major economic and political difficulties. Also, we have to rely on market-oriented economic and political reforms based on the rule of and democracy to solve the pressing problems social evils of Sikkimese society. We seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgments. Lastly, Sikkim Krantikari Morcha party must establish its strong root on the core ideologies of democratic socialism as a means of safeguarding and securing Sikkim and Sikkimese society.
Pluralism is defined as a political theory or system of power-sharing among a number of political parties.
Principally, it is about embracing different ideas, more than one group of people and religions. A pluralistic society is a diverse entity wherein the people believes all kinds of different things, recognize and respect others` views and tolerate each other`s cultures, religions, beliefs even when they don`t match their own. In a pluralistic society, the citizens accommodate all types of people, different races, sexual orientation, cultures and religions.
Pluralism serves a model of democracy. We consider that democracy. We consider that democracy is more than a system of government. It is an ideology that teaches us about how human belongs ought to treat each other, and people`s values are respected. In the democratic socialist system, every human being should have an equal voice in the formation and operation of governance based on humanity, irrespective of power and privilege, status and education, gender, caste or religion, language or culture. Many proponents of democratic socialist have strongly advocated the equality, freedom and fraternity are the three values that constitute the life breath of democracy. Democratic socialists must secure and strengthen some vital pillars of democracy, such as, equality, Freedom, fraternity, and the electoral system to achieve cherished democracy. In this context, a pluralistic approach to politics would embrace many different philisosophes, such as capitalism and socialism. Upholding the philosophy is an instrumental in promoting unity in diversity. Sikkim being a state of democratic socialist India formed by multi- ethnic human groups, multi-cultures and multi- religions, Sikkim Krantikari Morcha party shall constantly guard it form the emerging Monolithic culture of the present regime.
Solidarism is about a belief in sharing common aims and interest and mutual inter- dependence among the members of a society.
Solidarity is unity based on common interest, goals, objectives, standards, etiquettes, sympathies, etc. It represents the ties in a society that bind people together as one. The basis of solidarity is the kinship and shared values. Many thinkers have said that the solidarity is valued as a source of strength and resistance for developing cultured and civilized society. The experiences of personal life, work and community ecosystems are said to generate, promote and sustain help and support in a society. Sikkim Krantikari Morcha party believes in the philosophy of solidarity, and it shall strives to promote solidarity and the Ubuntu life, which means ‘’ how can one be happy when the others are sad?’’ among the people to foster a stronger human inter- dependency in Sikkimese society.